Alma, Muukka-Marjovuo’s Ph Thesis in Finnish
Taidetunteen kasvattaminen: Lilli Törnudd taidekasvatuksen maailmoja luomassa 2014
Muukka-Marjovuo’s study examines the drawing method of Lilli Törnudd (1862–1929) focusing on the concepts shared in music, dance and picture education. This doctoral thesis explores Törnudd’s methodology of combining music and pictures in art education and maps the roots of multisensory contemporary art educationof the 1920’s.
Törnudd was a drawing and handcraft teacher. She was an important actor creating new art pedagogy when Finland had just gained its independence in 1918. Although Törnudd was an erudite person who had studied widely literature of art education in multiple languages, she didn’t construct theories – but wrote practical instructions for art teacher students. Writing in Finnish she brought actual discussion of art education to Finland. She worked as a head of drawing teachers in Taideteollisuuskeskuskoulu, the predecessor of Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture. She was also the first school inspector in drawing.
The aim of the study is to investigate what kind of conceptions about art integration Törnudd has in her text: the book being systematically analysed is drawing methodology book ”Kuvaanto-opetuksen metodiikka” (1926). After classifying ”Kuvaanto-opetuksen metodiikka” the researcher has compared her taxation with other materials such as Törnudds other books, articles and Törnudd’s letters. Törnudd’s conceptions have been put into perspective by comparing them with other contemporary writers. The researcher has hermeneutically ”understood” Törnudd’s time, persona and lifeworld, lebenswelt by playing Törnudd in several teaching performances. The method of understanding is called hermeneutic empathy and the method of researching today’s art education by studying historical text is called estrangement, outouttaminen.
The research attitude is phenomenological, which means that the lifeworld of the researcher is an important instrument in the study. The researcher is a music and visual arts teacher. She has created for her students a contemporary art-based picture study curriculum, resting on mixing sound, picture and movement.
According to the study, Lilli Törnudd saw picture and sound as combining elements not only in art pedagogy but also as concepts. Törnudd’s picture pedagogy contains means that are more common in music pedagogy. Törnudd is using vocabulary from music teaching. Törnudd’s drawing pedagogy consists of four intermodal didactics: rhythm didactics, decorative didactics, temporal didactics and affective didactics.
When the teacher is living and teaching applying the harmony principle, s/he educates individuals who are able to function together. According to Törnudd’s conceptions, an ideal human being should be responsible, solid, spiritual and intersubjective. Törnudd sees students as individuals who compose an ensemble. Törnudd’s mentality is manifested in her phrase: ”Art must not be a study subject, but a principle in the whole school system”. Törnudd was scheming a ”New School”, an art based compulsory school.